Bitcoin is free speech

Thanks to the first ammendment Bitcoin cannot be banned in the US as other countries did.

In 1993, PGP encryption software author Phil Zimmerman faced criminal charges because the government said that encryption is as dangerous as guns or bombs, but after MIT press printed the source code in a book to the make the point that PGP’s code is protected speech, the government retracted and he was never indicted.

In 1995 in a landmark case Bernstein v. Department of Justice, mathematician Daniel Bernstein sued the U.S. government on First Amendment grounds for blocking publication of his encryption program. This case resulted in establishing code as speech and changed United States export regulations on encryption software, paving the way for international e-commerce.

Read More:

Cartesian Skepticism

René Descartes 1596–1650 was a French scientist, mathematician, and philosopher, and he was one of the key figures in the scientific revolution.

The Cartesian coordinate system was named after him, and he is credited as the father of analytical geometry, used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis.

René Descartes is the originator of Cartesian skepticism (a form of methodological skepticism), that puts all beliefs, ideas, thoughts, and matter in doubt.

He offers the following analogy:

A person had a basket full of apples and, being worried that some of the apples were rotten, wanted to take out the rotten ones to prevent the rot spreading. How would he proceed? Would he not begin by tipping the whole lot out of the basket? And would not the next step be to cast his eye over each apple in turn, and pick up and put back in the basket only those he saw to be sound, leaving the others?

Those who have never philosophized correctly have various opinions in their minds which they have begun to store up since childhood, and which they therefore have reason to believe may in many cases be false. Now the best way they can accomplish this is to reject all their beliefs together in one go, as if they were all uncertain and false. They can then go over each belief in turn and re-adopt only those which they recognize to be true and indubitable.

Cartesian skepticism is also known as Cartesian doubt, methodic doubt, methodological skepticism, Universal Doubt, or hyperbolic doubt.

Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.

The “Discourse on The Method” is a philosophical and autobiographical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637 and is best known as the source of the famous quotation:

“Cogito ergo sum”

“Je pense, donc je suis”

“I think, therefore I am”

Pope Alexander VII added Descartes’ works to the Index of Prohibited Books in 1663.

Misconception about running it twice

There is a misconception that running it twice gives the hand that is behind in equity two chances to improve their hand. This is incorrect. Running it twice helps you realize your equity better than running it once.

Running it twice or more times is a 0EV move. This means it doesn’t affect your Expected Value whatsoever. So from a math standpoint, it doesn’t matter if you run it once, twice, three, or fifty times.

Running it twice is simply a tool to reduce variance.

The problem with running it twice is that it slows the game down and you end up seeing less total hands.

By definition

Variance (of a discrete random variable)

A measure of spread for a distribution of a random variable that determines the degree to which the values of a random variable differ from the expected value.

The variance of random variable X is often written as Var(X) or σ2 or σ2x.

For a discrete random variable the variance is calculated by summing the product of the square of the difference between the value of the random variable and the expected value, and the associated probability of the value of the random variable, taken over all of the values of the random variable.

In symbols, Var(X) = (x – µ)2 P(X = x)

In a simple example:

In a 100 dollar pot:
probability of winning 90%

E(x)= 0.9(100)
E(x)= 90

Running it 5 times
E(x)= 0.9(20)+0.9(20)+0.9(20)+0.9(20)+0.9(20)
E(x)= 18+18+18+18+18
E(x)= 90

Given that this is 0EV move, the decision to run it depends only in your desire to reduce variance or not.

MIT’s Opencourseware white paper regarding variance of discrete distributions.

Running it Twice: The Ultimate Guide